Build Your Family Library on the Cheap

Have you always dreamed of having shelves and shelves of books? The theory is great, but when you consider the cost of buying so many books, you might decide that it just isn’t worth it and stick to a library card instead. However, it really doesn’t have to be that expensive to build your own home library! Here are a few tips to help you get your collection underway on a budget.

 

The first thing to do is to set aside a small amount of money each month specifically earmarked for books. This could be just the change you end up with at the end of each day, deposited into a “book jar” or you might budget a certain amount, $5-50 each month. The amount you can afford is really determined by your personal finances, but it doesn’t have to be a lot. Now, with your money, it’s time to start shopping for books!

Check out the used book stores in your area. At one time, it was possible to buy used books from these dusty shops for just pennies, but with the cost of living and the rent going up, you are lucky to find used books for $5 in most cases. But don’t worry, used bookstores often have a sale rack or a bin where they toss books that have just been hanging around too long or that are damaged. Take the time to look through these bins. Most of the books will be drivel, but you will occasionally find a gold nugget that is well worth the fifty cents being asked!

Garage sales are another good source of used books, often in excellent condition. Since books rarely sell, it is likely that you will be able to buy them at a nice, low price. If the owner seems reluctant to give a good price, ask if you can come back or call after the sale is over and buy any remaining books for a discount. Rather than pack up the leftover books, most garage sale owners will say yes. You might also get a discount if you offer to take the entire lot, instead of picking through them.

Another often overlooked source of used books is your local library. Ask when they have their sales. Libraries usually get rid of older or damaged books once or twice a year. These books will be stamped with “DISCARD” and may have the book cover marked or cut up, but they are also dirt cheap and you can find some very good books this way.

Regular thrift shops usually have a book section as well. Since these shops will often be earning off their clothing or other goods, the books will be very low priced, often just ten or twenty cents each. Many of the books will be out of date, but for novels and the like, it really doesn’t matter and you can build your library for just a few dollars.

Yet another place to get used books for cheap is the school. Schools regularly discard their old library books and sell off their out-of-date texts. This can mean big savings for you. The readers are full of illustrated stories for children and come in every grade level. They are often sold for a dollar or two, so you can pick up what basically amounts to an entire book full of stories for next to nothing!

As you can see, there’s no need to spend the big bucks on getting books for your family library. Used books are just as good as brand new ones and just a fraction of the price! So take advantage of the used book sales today and start building a library!…

Five of the World’s Most Unusual, Eco-Friendly Home Furnishings

With all this talk about taking care of the Earth, and learning to efficiently use the world’s resources, I thought it would be interesting to take a look at some inventions that are little known to the rest of the world. There are plenty of us who religiously and meticulously separate our waste materials. But it seems that there are organizations who are taking the “green” movement a little bit farther than the average consumer. In my quest for life’s most interesting conversation pieces, I lucked up on a several different mind-blowing home decorating options (most of which are made of recycleable materials). Mind you, each and every one of these are fully-functional, and in most cases, some of the most beautiful pieces of home art you’ll ever find…

 

  1. A FIREPLACE IN YOUR TABLE – Those not fortunate enough to have a cozy spot in the house for gathering around a toasty fire are finally in luck. Schulte Design is marketing a line of furniture called “Fire Furniture”, with one of the more popular pieces being a small coffee table which has a fireplace integrated into the center of its structure. In case you’re worried about pollutants, do not be. The fire is created with a liquid that is emission and smoke free.
  2. BOOKSHELF…OR COFFIN? – The Shelves for Life, which made their debut at the [Re]Design 06 exhibition in London, are perhaps the most functional bookshelves ever invented. After you’re finished using the shelves to hold your most precious literary items, you can use them to hold your most recently deceased. Yes, the contemporary, multi-slat shelves can be dismantled and re-assembled into a fully functioning coffin.
  3. THE KITCHEN CHAIR– I know what you’re thinking. There isn’t any thing strange about a chair being in the kitchen. But what about a chair that actually doubles as a kitchen? Vestal Design has developed a home décor solution for those with extremely limited space. The DoubleSpace Kitchenette is essentially a chair which can be flipped over (via an internal swivel mechanism) and used as a fully functioning stove.

    The “kitchenette” contains a countertop and two stove burners. It was also designed with a safety feature which will not allow the stove to be operable when the unit is used as a chair. Furthermore, the device is mobile, and can be rolled around at your leisure. Under the assumption that one will never cook and sit at the same time, this unit was developed to conserve both space and energy.

  4. DINING ROOM IN A BOX– This isn’t a reference to a bucket of chicken, or any variation of “boxable” fast food. The MealBox, created by Igland Design is actually a complete dining room set which fits neatly into a cube measuring almost a 1 ½ feet high.

    The furniture itself consists of several jigsaw puzzle-like slats which fit snugly together to form a low coffee table or mini-dining table. The six “chairs” are simply stackable seats which closely resemble foot stools covered in “tush-sensitive” Neoprene rubber seating. This dining room can be taken literally anywhere.

  5. AN IV FOR YOUR HOUSEPLANTS – Green thumb? What’s that? Everyone who has attempted to grow houseplants and failed understands that these lovely greenies need water, sunlight, and lots of happy conversation. Sometimes, we forget to supply the first ingredient.

    But if you happen to have Vitamin Living‘s I.V. Plant Pot, then you shall fear no more the imminent death of your beloved household plants. This contraption is a real I.V. which continually provides your plant with its necessary nutrients. When the clear I.V. bag goes a bit flat, you’ll know that it’s time to fill up your plant’s water supply once more.

As I combed the internet and browsed various sites, I was amazed at exactly how many different kinds of companies there are which are solely dedicated to providing innovative solutions to space and energy conservation. By taking a closer look at how we use our square footage and energy, it’s possible to discover brand new ways of conserving the earth’s resources.…

How to Have a Clean Environment for Successful Work

If you are like me, it’s hard to sit down to get anything done if your desk is cluttered with trash, empty plates or cups, and other items that are not necessary to being productive. Today I set to clearing the clutter.

 

You can view photos of the process here.

Separation of Work and Play 
Since I am returning home from college and using freelance writing as my summer job, my bed room has become my office. To separate work and play, my desk faces away from my bed, books, and stereo. I’ve learned that even looking at the items will distract me. Oh how tempting naps are.

For many, the situation is much different. If possible, it would be best to set aside an office space (another room, large closet, etc.). For me, dedicated on half of my room to a space to write.

Clearing the clutter 
I always begin cleaning by throwing away all of the trash. This leaves you only the items that need to be sorted. From there you can organize your belongings, put them in storage, or donate them if they are no longer something you need.

Since the space I use is also my bedroom, I disposed of trash, put all my clothes away, and organized the necessary items for writing such as pens, pencils, sticky notes, etc.

Beware getting distracted 
When you begin to sort items you can get side-tracked in many ways. For instance, I came across some of my possessions that held significance with me, when placing them in their correct location, I found other things of significance. My items of significance were old year books, which I spent nearly two hours looking through. It’s great to have these moments, but not when you should be working. So set a time frame on cleaning and stick to it.

Tips 
– Decide where you are going to work and what environment you work best in. 
– Separate work and play as much as you possibly can. 
– Clear away all unnecessary items like trash, plates, or anything that will distract you. 
– Set a realistic time limit on preparing this space and keep track of that time.

Once you have a clean environment to work in that is specific to you, you will feel much more productive. And, everything you need will be within an arm’s reach.

Other projects lead to restoring the environment, such as conservation of coral reefs, or rain forests, this can often lead to eco-tourism opportunities.

For other projects such as land restoration, soil remediation, we have seen mining companies and land developers working together with environmental companies to restore the lands and develop new projects.

But overall, some of the new opportunities such as carbon credits, water rights and biodiversity are new financial instruments that you should certainly consider in your revenue model, and you maybe surprised of the upsides they can bring to you.

Question 3: Do CleanTech / Environmental Investors invest in these projects?

Yes, they do, and there are specialized investment funds dedicated for these projects (see our report Global CleanTech & Environmental Capital Providers Guide for more details) ‘” there are certain investment funds investing in forestry managements and eco-tourism projects, even though they are not usually mentioned on their website as part of the mandate.

In terms of locations, our research has shown that investment firms in Australia, Canada, US, Switzerland, Germany and UK are particularly the ones worth investigating. There are also different Government grants and incentives available ‘” some are available in Asia Pacific and Middle East (if they relate to water management and soil remediation). You should certainly look at international opportunities when comes to capital raising.…

How to Become an Advertising Freelancer

There are essentially three kinds of businesses in this world: Those that can afford to have an advertising agency handle all their advertising; those that can’t, but can do their own advertising and marketing in-house; and finally, those businesses that can do neither. That’s where an advertising freelancer comes into the picture.

 

A freelancer works on a project-by-project basis. No case too small. The benefit to the business is that they can have the freelancer work with their relatively low ad budget. The freelancer charges either by the hour or per project for their services. In doing so, they can provide professional advertising campaign management with a budget far lower than advertising agencies can feasibly work with. It’s becoming a better option for more and more businesses that simply don’t have the ability to do it on their own.

This creates an outstanding opportunity for advertising professionals who want to break out of the corporate conundrum, and get out on their own. Freelancers enjoy a greater amount of independence and self-determination than advertising professionals who work in a firm. They can take on numerous businesses as clients and have multiple streams of revenue. This means better financial stability for the freelancer.

So, say you’re an advertising pro and ready to cut the agency apron strings. Here are some simple, logical steps to get going:

1. Come up with a marketable name. Some freelancers make the mistake of working as a single person, (“Jane Schmo, Advertising Freelance”). This tends to “shrink” the freelance’s abilities in the eyes of a prospective client. Instead, come up with a professional company name (more like “Schmo Advertising and Marketing”). Present yourself more in the light of a project manager-type that will produce, supervise and manage a company’s ad campaign with the aid of other creative advertising professionals if needed. This will go a long way in projecting your image as an advertising professional who can take on any kind of campaign.

2. Once you have a name, have professional materials made up to build your image. This includes the obvious: business cards, stationery, brochures, etc. But also be sure to include other items such as advertising premiums – such as pens, key-chains, notepads, personalized calendars, and other “schwag”. You want to get your name and image out there and on the desks of the very business owners you want to work for. Image and name recognition is everything in advertising more so than any other segment of business. Get your name out there.

3. Produce an impressive info-pack – Be sure to include a detailed resume and history of past campaigns that you have worked on in your professional career. Be sure to highlight your more successful campaigns, the ones you think your prospects may have come across.

4. Put up a website – This is non-negotiable if you want to be taken seriously as a professional. You MUST have a website with a good, easy to remember domain name. Make sure ALL your materials have your web address. Your website will be your living, breathing resume. Don’t skimp on it, and update it regularly. Put up nothing less than a professional, clean and slick website and be sure to have your burgeoning portfolio on-line for your prospects to peruse at their leisure.

5. Determine your rates – Research your competition and see what the going rates are for the kind of services you will be offering. Price yourself somewhere in the middle. According to most advertising trade publications, freelance copywriters get anywhere from $350-450 per billable hour. Keep in mind that many business owners like to have a good idea of what the total cost of the project will be from the get-go. Look into pricing an entire project to get their business. Just make sure you don’t price too low and end up working way too much for too little.

6. Nobody can do everything great, so make sure your prospects understand that you have other professionals at your disposal. Such as, graphic artists, web designers and other creative specialists, to make their campaign a well-packaged success.

7. Know the ins and outs of on-line advertising! This is the future of advertising, and …

Advertising, Promotions, Marketing and Public Relations Managers

Public relations, advertising and marketing management are highly coveted jobs for the ratio of high wages to freedom of work environment. Those in these positions often can work from home, travel and have an office supplied to them. While many positions require a raw talent for marketing, some of the intricacies can be easily learned for a lucrative career

Job Duties

An advertising, marketing or public relations manager is responsible for the strategy, sales, promotion, pricing, public outreach, development and marketing of a product or company. Advertising managers focus on the ad campaigns and may work with the finance and promotional departments to find the most beneficial advertising campaigns available. A public relations manager is responsible for the design and implementation of public promotions including events on social media, through bloggers and writers and through the broadcast media.

Skills Required

This career path is full of schedule changes and requires an employee to be flexible as well as work under pressure. Anyone in the field of public relations, marketing and advertising must have excellent customer service skills as well as the ability to blend with special interest groups. Long hours, weekends and evenings are sometimes required, as are above average computer and media skills.

Education and Requirements

A bachelor’s degree, preferably in a business administration, is typically required for marketing, sales and promotions manager. In fields that are dependent on knowledge of electronics, a degree in engineering or science is preferred. Required coursework for these degrees include classes in advertising, public affairs, speaking, communications and political science, among core requirements. Many successful promotions, public relations and marketing managers are fluent in multiple languages, and an extensive knowledge of social media is preferred.

Courses Required

Many colleges offer four-year degrees specifically in advertising, promotions and social media. Typical courses required include advertising and society, mass communication, media writing, principles of advertising, digital communication, brand solutions, social networks, search engine marketing and design in media. These courses teach a broad range of current trends in mass media including print, broadcasting and digital media. Technology, sociology and psychology courses are also suggested electives for any position in promotional media career paths.

Outlook and Salary

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the field of advertising, marketing, promotions and public relations will continue to grow by more than 13 percent through 2018. In May 2008, the average annual wage for an advertising and promotions manager was $80,200, more than $108,000 for marketing managers and $89,430 for public relations managers.

 
 

Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Outlook Handbook, Advertising, Marketing, Promotions, and Public Relations…

Green Methods for Removing Paint

Removing your old paint can be a messy and time consuming process-especially when chemical paint strippers are involved. But besides being a pain in the neck, chemical paint strippers and removers can pollute our land, air and water. No matter what type of painting removers you plan on using for your next home improvement project, be careful. Paint that was applied prior to 1978 can contain lead. You may need to hire a lead abatement service to prevent exposure to this deadly toxin.

Isopropanol Alcohol

This is one of the best paint removers for soft woods and other delicate materials because it doesn’t leave stains. This ecofriendly paint remover evaporates quickly, so any residue that’s left behind is only old paint-and not the stripper itself. Typical rubbing alcohol that is bought at the store for medicinal supplies might not be strong enough to use to remove more stubborn paints. Higher concentrations of rubbing alcohol can be bought when stronger and tougher paints don’t come off with conventional isopropanol alcohol.

Canola Oil

When latex paints or other light water based paints are being used, canola oil can help to remove them quickly, safely and eco consciously. To remove paint using canola oil, spread a small amount onto a terry cloth towel or wash cloth. Rub the paint vigorously to begin the process of cleaning up the old paint. Canola oil shouldn’t be used on clear stained wood products as the heavy oils will permanently stain the wood. Older oil based paints have a hard time coming clean with canola oils.

Adhesive Backed Stripper

Exterior paint products that are stuck on difficult-to-clean material like stone, brick or stucco can be super tough to remove. That’s where adhesive backed paint strippers come into play. They help keep the messy paint chips and other paint materials from scattering all over the ground. By adhering to the paint with its super adhesive backing, it bonds permanently with paint-but not the materials underneath. Once hardened, peel it away and toss it in the trash.

Electric Heat Guns

These blow dryer looking devices work excellent for removing paint without any dangerous chemicals. These will peel even the most stubborn of paints away from their base material for easy and safe disposal. Electric heat guns should never be used on plastic materials that may melt under the extreme heat.

Citric Acid

This fruit based paint remover uses citric acid-typically found in oranges-to safely remove paint in an environmental friendly way. These materials are safe for all household cleaning as well as removing many paints from their substrate. Be careful not to use any citric acid-based cleaners that have dyes or scents as these can easily stain wood materials for good.

However, when I picked up the bottle of the new formula of Windex at the store last week, and it was simply labeled “vinegar,” I realized that all these years, I have been duped. I was about to pay over $3 for a small spray bottle of chemically enhanced vinegar and water! I promptly determined to go home and make my own green cleaners. So after some quick research online, I began using my trusty vinegar cleaner on everything, my glass tabletop, doors and windows, mirrors, kitchen countertops, stove top, and more! You would not believe my sparklin’ house, ya’ll! Even Juan was pleasantly surprised, it does not smudge, smear, or streak!

Here are a couple of quick tips for any first-timers out there wondering how to get started on making your own green cleaners. (I know I wasn’t the only one still buying those chemical cleaners, cuz the products are still on the store shelves!)

1. To make the vinegar and water cleaner, simply put half water, half vinegar into a spray bottle ‘” Voila! No really, it’s that easy ‘”

2. When I first start wiping the vinegar with newspaper, paper towel, rag (your choice ‘” you already know what’s greener!) it looks as if it is going to smear ‘” keep wiping, and you will see the shine!

3. There is a great green bathroom cleaner you can use ‘” hydrogen peroxide and water ‘” see http://www.using-hydrogen-peroxide.com/ for valuable information on this green product, as …

Live the Green Life

While some people think that it is just too much of an effort to –think green and live green–the environment is
what will suffer and many animals are certain to become distinct. Playing a part in reducing the carbon fallout 
on the Planet Earth is a role that anyone and everyone can play, regardless of age or where they live.

 

Recycling- Newspapers

Sunday mornings are usually a time when the newspapers are read and poured over for all of the multiple 
advertisements they contain. They are read a section at a time usually with morning coffee, and then tossed 
aside. This can go on for almost an entire morning, depending on how many sections the Sunday Papers contain.

When finally they are finished being read many have a habit,(almost without thinking), of gathering them, 
section by section, and placing them in the trash. Stop! Save the earth by saving the newspapers and advertisement pages and using them instead to light the fireplace, outdoor grill, or place under the mulch in the garden.

Recycling-Torn or One of a Pair of Missing Socks

Socks are great to use for dusting. They work well when cleaning the blinds. Put your hand into one of the socks, place it on top of one of the slats, and dust both the upper and lower slat at the same time. For washing the slats dip your hand, with sock into a mixture of Baking Soda and water. Do the same thing to wash the blinds after being dusted. Use a dry sock to dry the blinds. Launder the socks and reuse them for another chore at another time.

Recycling-Old Cotton Tee Shirts

Torn Tee Shirts are great to use to wash the car. Take two buckets and fill one with water and the other with 
baking soda in water and a dry tee shirt. Use one to rinse the car, the other to wash and the third to dry. Tee 
shirts are reusable so instead of throwing them out clean them and hang them to dry and use again.

Produce-Fruits and Vegetables

Buy home grown produce whenever possible. Purchasing them from the local farms or growing them in 
back yards will keep our farmers recycling the soil. We will be assured of eating fresh produce minus all 
those chemicals being sprayed on them. Even those that do not have large gardens can plant tomatoes, small green onions, radishes or a variety of herbs (usually purchased) in boxes outside on the patio.

Cleaning Products

Buy and use Baking Soda and Vinegar in place of store bought disinfections and spray deodorants to help keep chemicals out of the atmosphere. Both are very inexpensive and clean most anything using little effort. Open a box of baking soda and keep it in each bathroom. It eliminates odors without using the spray cans that are tossed into the garbage instead of being recycled. Baking soda and vinegar poured weekly down the drains, will result in having them smell sweet and clean.

There are many ways to Save the Environment – some take more effort than others – but the above suggestions take little effort, time or expense and anyone can do it-as long as they are not hospitalized.…

Eco-Friendly Homemade Mother’s Day Cards You Can Make

What is more personal on Mother’s Day than a gift you make yourself? Mom won’t miss those flowers when you give her a Pop-Up Bouquet Card. It’s easy to make and allows kids to be creative. Best of all, by using recyclable paper, you’re helping the environment.

 

The I Love You a Bunch! Mother’s Day Card lets kids have fun drawing with colored markers and getting their hands dirty with purple paint. Made with recyclable card stock, this colorful card is also eco-friendly.

Adults like to make their own Mother’s Day cards too. The Brown Paper Bag Card with colorful ribbon is easy to make. Glitter can be sprinkled on for a more decorative effect.

Pop-up Bouquet Card

Craft Materials

Brightly colored craft paper

Plain White Paper with no lines

Your favorite colored markers

Scissors

Glue 1. Take a piece of the colored paper and cut a 7 by 4 inch rectangle and a 4 by 1 ½ inch rectangle. Turn the small rectangle so that the short edges face the 
sides. Take a colored marker and draw a flower vase in the center.

2. Draw roses with broad stems and leaves on the white paper. Cut them out and glue the fronts of the leaves and stems to the other side of the vase.

3. When glue is thoroughly dry, crease the vase and bouquet vertically. Take the small rectangle and fold back the short sides, about ½ inch from the edge. 
Next, fold the large rectangle in half, crease, and reopen.

4. Center your bouquet on top of the opened card and glue the side tabs of the small rectangle to the card. Take a brightly colored marker and print a special 
message to mom inside.

I Love You a Bunch Mother’s Day Card

Supplies needed:

Recyclable card stock

Purple paint

Medium size carrot with top removed

Colored Marker 1. Take marker and print out the grape leaf pattern.

2. Draw little smiling faces on each grape.

3. Fold the card in half and write your message to Mom inside.

Brown Paper Bag Card

Supplies needed:

Brown Paper from a grocery bag

Scissors

Hole Punch

Colored Ribbon

Colored Marker 1. Cut the shape you desire from the brown paper

2. Using a hole punch, make an even number of holes around the edges of card.

3. String Ribbon through the holes

4. Tie the ends in a bow,

5. Write your desired message on the card.

Sources:

www.enchantedlearning.com

www.jas.familyfun.go.com

www.daniellesplace.com/html/mothersday.html

www.sxc.hu…

Going Green

I just got back from the store. This is my green mode and I am choosing not to give more money to the oil companies. The weather is beautiful and usually I take my bike to get cigarettes and groceries. I haven’t had it down since last fall so the tires need pumping up and Mike has the compressor, so I decided to walk. Just a few miles, it’s no big deal.

The store for the cigarettes and lottery tickets (my personal vice store…It has cigarettes cheaper than the grocery) is a two blocks south and two blocks west. The grocery is 10 blocks north and two blocks west. I decide on the cigarettes first, throw them in my backpack and onward to the grocery, just in case I overbought. I got my prescription and I think everything that was compact and weighed over 5 pounds. $60 later I pack the backpack full and have two extra shopping bags…and am quite smug that I already stopped for cigarettes. As I push the cart out of the store, I decide the pack is quite heavy and shall leave it in the shopping cart until the last cart corral. I also think it a wise idea to open the Arizona ice tea and throw back a few gulps before I go. By now I realize the winter coat and gloves were too much for 65-degree weather and need some fluid.

I pause as long as I can and reload the backpack to my back. It really is heavy. In an effort to appear normal I smile as I trudge ahead, really wanting a cigarette, but feeling that I would look a little foolish puffing and walking. The backpack is starting to cut into my shoulders.

Two blocks are down and only ten more to go. Funny, last year the walk wasn’t quite as long as this. My wrist is starting to hurt from the additional bags hanging from it.

Four blocks down and I’m seriously considering sitting down and drinking the ice tea, instead of sipping it while I walk. I get a stitch in my side and realize all this movement has promoted a gas attack. I walk with my stride tamed down in an effort to keep my legs closed, at least until I’m far enough away from the neighbor working in her yard.

Six blocks finished and the thought of a bicycle seemed wonderful. Actually, a car was looking better and my determination not to use gasoline was waning. I was seriously considering stopping at homes under the ruse of missioning my religion so I could sit down, but they might ask questions and they usually make you wait on the porch, standing. Besides, if they did let me sit in the house, they might want me to give them literature and all I had was celery and cauliflower in the backpack.

Eight blocks down and I now question myself, “Just when did I become Amish?” There is no answer but I notice that my right arm is now numb.

Two blocks to go….I can’t quit now. I see all the neighbors and passing out is totally out of the question. Must smile….Tried to wave but the arm won’t lift…Grin and nod.

Front yard…cut across lawn. Gas isn’t such a crisis and what can one person do anyhow? Barely get the key in the door, push the cat aside and sit the backpack down. Dang. I unpack the groceries and go downstairs. I have done my bit for my body and the environment. Time to light up and finish the ice tea and I answer my emails.

First email to a friend:

Hi Lori,

Just got home. I walked to the grocery and the wonderful breeze and smell of spring in the air made it all worthwhile. I thought that I would pass this on to encourage others to save gasoline. It really is quite invigorating.

See you.

Sit back and wait, laughing to myself. Someone else will try it if I promote it enough. There is evil inside me.…

Women in Advertising

Advertising teaches us from a very young age how to act, dress, speak, and relate to others, especially the “opposite” sex. It is gender construction and stereotypes; it is there to sell us a line. And that line is that you are imperfect. Not only are you imperfect, but it is your duty, as a woman, to strive for an unrealistic perfection that you will never reach. When you fail to reach this imperfection you internalize the failure and see it as your fault, something you did. This contributes eating disorders, low self esteem among women, and even violence against women. Advertising is teaching American women to want to be sexually provocative but to be sexually provocative through the clothes they wear and how they look to the male gaze looking at them. I chose this topic because it affects everyone regardless of age, gender, race, or class and certainly some of those more than others.

Women are vulnerable in a culture that uses them for their body parts. Women are not valued for their actions, their intelligence or what they say, but how they look and how they wear their clothes. They are used to sell products. Their sexuality is exploited to sell, sell, sell. This exploitation in advertising leads to other much more dangerous exploitations such as domestic violence, harassment, child abuse, murder, and rape. Advertising is everywhere and in everything. The image of women portrayed in advertising and the media at large is how we have come to see ourselves “what we take ourselves to be is how we perceive ourselves to be perceived” (Reichert 185). It is so pervasive that women who claim to not be influenced by advertising still find themselves dieting nine months out of twelve and buying expensive cosmetics to cover their wrinkles, dye the gray out of their hair, and dress twenty years younger than they are to appear attractive to men. It is a male construction that only young females are attractive but we buy into it every time we buy that foundation, or promise to lose those ten extra pounds gained over Christmas. We are taught to think that is what we are supposed to do so that is what we do. That’s why I have chosen this topic, its very penetration into the core identity of all women.

 

Advertising has deep roots in America. The first advertising campaign began in the nineteenth century and was used to entice Europeans to come to this wild and foreign country describing America as “The Garden of Eden” (Sivulka 7). Advertising in Europe had its beginning in the 1440’s when Johannes Gutenberg invented the first printing press with movable type in Germany on which the first printed book was the Bible. After that the first form of ads were handbills, posters, trade cards, and newspapers, which were the first mass produced medium. In 1477, William Caxton, a London printer, printed the first printed advertisement in English selling a prayer book. Soon magazines and newspapers picked up ads and carried them into the surrounding community. It was not until the 1700’s that advertisements became the main source of revenue for newspapers and magazines. The first printing press in America was established at Harvard College in 1639 (Sivulka).

Benjamin Franklin founded the Pennsylvania Gazette in 1728 and was the first known American to use illustrations in his ads. He was pioneer in the advertising field using ads on the front page, using white space and headlines. During this period most ads were focused on land, runaway slaves, and transportation. But it was the demand for news about the American Revolution that inflamed newspaper circulation, but also worsened the paper shortage at the time. The Civil War gave rise to a consumer economy and Isaac Merritt Singer’s sewing machine became the first heavily advertised machine made for the American home. As is customary with every war in history America has been involved in women were active in the workforce during the war. In 1870, “1 out of 6 workers were women all young and unmarried with money to spend” (Sivulka 20). Due to this women were the primary consumer’s spending their wartime paychecks. This is …