Women in Advertising

Advertising teaches us from a very young age how to act, dress, speak, and relate to others, especially the “opposite” sex. It is gender construction and stereotypes; it is there to sell us a line. And that line is that you are imperfect. Not only are you imperfect, but it is your duty, as a woman, to strive for an unrealistic perfection that you will never reach. When you fail to reach this imperfection you internalize the failure and see it as your fault, something you did. This contributes eating disorders, low self esteem among women, and even violence against women. Advertising is teaching American women to want to be sexually provocative but to be sexually provocative through the clothes they wear and how they look to the male gaze looking at them. I chose this topic because it affects everyone regardless of age, gender, race, or class and certainly some of those more than others.

Women are vulnerable in a culture that uses them for their body parts. Women are not valued for their actions, their intelligence or what they say, but how they look and how they wear their clothes. They are used to sell products. Their sexuality is exploited to sell, sell, sell. This exploitation in advertising leads to other much more dangerous exploitations such as domestic violence, harassment, child abuse, murder, and rape. Advertising is everywhere and in everything. The image of women portrayed in advertising and the media at large is how we have come to see ourselves “what we take ourselves to be is how we perceive ourselves to be perceived” (Reichert 185). It is so pervasive that women who claim to not be influenced by advertising still find themselves dieting nine months out of twelve and buying expensive cosmetics to cover their wrinkles, dye the gray out of their hair, and dress twenty years younger than they are to appear attractive to men. It is a male construction that only young females are attractive but we buy into it every time we buy that foundation, or promise to lose those ten extra pounds gained over Christmas. We are taught to think that is what we are supposed to do so that is what we do. That’s why I have chosen this topic, its very penetration into the core identity of all women.


Advertising has deep roots in America. The first advertising campaign began in the nineteenth century and was used to entice Europeans to come to this wild and foreign country describing America as “The Garden of Eden” (Sivulka 7). Advertising in Europe had its beginning in the 1440’s when Johannes Gutenberg invented the first printing press with movable type in Germany on which the first printed book was the Bible. After that the first form of ads were handbills, posters, trade cards, and newspapers, which were the first mass produced medium. In 1477, William Caxton, a London printer, printed the first printed advertisement in English selling a prayer book. Soon magazines and newspapers picked up ads and carried them into the surrounding community. It was not until the 1700’s that advertisements became the main source of revenue for newspapers and magazines. The first printing press in America was established at Harvard College in 1639 (Sivulka).

Benjamin Franklin founded the Pennsylvania Gazette in 1728 and was the first known American to use illustrations in his ads. He was pioneer in the advertising field using ads on the front page, using white space and headlines. During this period most ads were focused on land, runaway slaves, and transportation. But it was the demand for news about the American Revolution that inflamed newspaper circulation, but also worsened the paper shortage at the time. The Civil War gave rise to a consumer economy and Isaac Merritt Singer’s sewing machine became the first heavily advertised machine made for the American home. As is customary with every war in history America has been involved in women were active in the workforce during the war. In 1870, “1 out of 6 workers were women all young and unmarried with money to spend” (Sivulka 20). Due to this women were the primary consumer’s spending their wartime paychecks. This is …

Advertising Degrees: Benefits of a Top Program

The great thing about having an advertising degree is that advertising never dies, it only transforms. Over the years, advertising has built products, companies, careers, and has transcended the ages. Its written and visual cues have distracted us on billboards, magazines, newspapers, or on the sides of buildings. We’ve laughed, cried, and sung the catchy tunes of the radio ads, the infomercials of television, or the interactive ads on the internet. As long as there has been business and commerce there has also been advertising, and as long as there is still a product left on earth to market, there will continue to be advertising. Talk about job security!

Understanding what comprises a top advertising program can be difficult though. What is it exactly that builds such a program into one that produces successful candidates for the world of advertising? These days a top advertising program must have the capacity to change and stay current with or even ahead of the swiftly moving trends of internet advertising. It must also have the ability effectively to balance a student’s curriculum between the creative aspects of advertising and its business side. It is also the role of a top advertising program to prepare students for the real world through professional networking, internships, mock presentations, and projects that mimic what will be encountered in the workforce.

But you might say to yourself, “I’m talented, with a quick wit and charismatic personality. Why do I need a top advertising program to get a job in the field?” While someone might indeed have a personality fit to the advertising world, there are things a top advertising program can do that will harness those skills and allow someone to more effectively and efficiently utilize their natural talent. Building public relation skills, studying the most recent computer development programs, and taking courses that will prepare you for creating constructive client relationships or developing marketing strategies, can provide an educational background that will allow you to begin an advertising career in higher level executive positions sooner than those without such a degree.

So what types of careers are available to someone with a degree from a top advertising program? The scope and range of career opportunities in advertising are wide ranging and spread throughout numerous industries. The possibilities broaden even further when potential candidates have the educational background with which a top advertising program provides them. Those with more outgoing personalities may opt for a position as a manager in promotions, sales, marketing or public relations, while those less comfortable in the limelight might select a career path that focuses on the creative side such as being a market research, product development, pricing or advertising strategy. In whatever advertising role you may be interested, there is plenty of latitude when it comes to deciding on what is right for you. From account executives to public relations officers to the aspects of development and design of advertising campaigns, promotions, and marketing there are niches for just about any type of personality or background within the advertising field.


This article is for informational purposes only. Any action taken by the reader due to the information provided in this article is at the reader’s discretion.…

Charity Auctions Offer Hotels Marketing Opportunity

In today’s challenging economic climate it’s sometimes hard to find good news on the marketing front, but I have some.


After years as a hotel general manager, I am all too familiar with the onslaught of requests from the dozens of worthy charities and schools in our communities. The process includes sifting through the requests, processing them, responding to the approved and disappointed contacts and then supervising the on site presentations. This can become a tremendously time consuming community service that often times delivers little measurable marketing value. So, when I learned about an online charity auction marketing program I was impressed (and relieved!).

One company called BiddingForGood hosts thousands of online charity auctions and has determined that it is the commercial item donors (us) who are not getting much of a win/win. The company has set out to fix that. Their approach to charity auctions is multi pronged…they not only provide a turn-key marketing program that delivers advertising value, leads, and paying customers, they also provide an online item request tool that allows properties to streamline requests. Their marketing program enables consolidation of these events into a performance based opportunity that delivers measureable ROI. They then track the respondents and even provide follow-up outreach to auction participants…it’s a total marketing package to a targeted demographic which has been previously been relatively untapped in the hospitality industry.

What’s so special about Charity Auctions? The charity donor base is highly attractive with hundreds/thousands of influential members of the community. The power of the charity auction is that the marketer reaches these donors through their trusted causes. This is important because the decline of traditional advertising has ultimately offered us alternative marketing opportunities, such as these charity auctions. These auctions reach people just as they are making purchasing decisions which are many times in the travel category.

Who are these charity auction bidders? In general, they are influential, affluent baby boomers – typically, an upscale demographic with a high demand for travel experiences and traditionally, a very expensive market to reach. A recent study completed by BiddingForGood shows that 36% of bidders in online charity auctions have a household income of $150,000 or more (47% for private schools) and 31% have a net worth in excess of $1 million. They travel extensively with 51% planning to travel internationally in the next year and 91% planning domestic travel. These are consumers of travel experiences with travel being the largest item category in the $16 billion charity auction market. Since 40% of online charity auctions are schools (most of them private schools) many of the bidders are parents who are booking travel for 4, 5 and 6 individuals. While females comprise the majority of bidders (68%) males typically have bids that are on average 60% higher. These are socially minded consumers who are looking to support a trusted cause such as their child’s school fundraiser and they spend money against this goal because it also meets their travel, dining, entertainment needs.

How It Works; When hotels are contacted by local charities, the charities are directed to the hotel website where they are asked to fill out a request form. This administrative online tool (Automated Item Request System- AIRS) enables the hotel to accept or decline requests with the simple click of a mouse thereby sending an email response while tracking everything.

BiddingForGood works with the brand to develop an appropriate offer that enables upsell and cross sell to the winning bidder (their research suggests that properties are giving away too much). The auction network also works with the brand on an item page which tells the hotel story and thereby controls the brand presentation. The specially built item page enforces brand integrity and locks in the minimum bid to properly represent the brand in this marketing-rich auction environment. The page also allows for deep engagement awareness, often up to 50 seconds per consumer (essentially virtual trial). And, this item page typically includes rich media (imbedded video) and numerous photos (which can’t be done when an item is displayed on a clipboard). Lastly, the links from dozens/hundreds of these auctions to the property’s website improves the hotel’s all-important Google natural search rankings (i.e. where you …

Developing an Effective Marketing Plan – Five Tips

Developing a marketing plan for your business requires time and effort. It is not something that can be done without concentration and proper preparation. Few business owners truly understand what they need to do in order to develop a marketing plan that will work.

Following are five simple steps that can help business owners develop effective plans that will work consistently over time. Taking the time to complete these steps can be the deciding factor between success and failure.

First, business owners need to set aside time dedicated solely to the task of marketing their business. Much like a budget, this plan will need to be attended to and monitored. Having set hours to work on marketing allows business owners the opportunity to work regularly on their marketing. Set aside five to ten hours a week for marketing and put it on the calendar. It is best to work in chunks of time such as two or three hours rather than scheduling an hour a day.

Second, business owners need to define their goals. Without goals there is no way to determine if marketing efforts are successful or not.

Third, decide on a budget. How much money is available to dedicate to marketing efforts will be a large factor in determining what can and cannot be done. Don’t worry if there are little to no funds available to support marketing efforts. The internet has created an environment where it is possible to advertise business products and services for free.

Fourth, business owners will research marketing activities that are specific to your industry and fit within the allocated budget. Developing an idea sheet along with approximate costs for each activity during the research process is a great way to keep track of your discoveries.

Fifth, develop a weekly marketing plan. The marketing plan should include marketing activities to be done as well as time to track the results of all marketing efforts. Tracking the results of your marketing efforts is critical to understanding which activities are successfully promoting your business and which ones are not working.…

Home Video Maker’s Guide: Marketing & Distribution

If you build it, he will come. – Field of Dreams


If you film it, we will watch. Of course to watch, we must know it exists. Perhaps the most vital part of your project, no matter the size or scope is marketing and distribution. You must make people aware of your film and then get it to them.

YouTube & AC

The web has changed the landscape of business and with multi-media entertainment it’s just getting started. The simple fact that you’re reading this article confirms the power of the Internet. There are so many media websites around, but the most popular by far is YouTube. Now Associated Content is also blazing a whole new exciting path of mixed media.

Recent moves by media giants like Viacom ordering YouTube to clear out clips or threatening to sue them for allowing copyrighted material to be posted has chilled them slightly, however it’s still the hot, happening place for filmmakers of all manner and ambition. Within a few hours after registering at YouTube, you can be up and running with your own space or even themed group. Even the flimsiest of flicks or even cell phone camera movies have become huge hits – the viral video flavor of the moment.

Associated Content allows content producers to not only write articles, but also to submit instructional and entertainment videos. With AC’s payment structure and high profile Internet status, you’ll not only get paid for your efforts, but that all important distribution and marketing factor will come off nicely. You’ll get a link to email anyone interested in your film.

Discs & Videos

Websites may be the quickest, easiest and cheapest way to get your work seen, but it’s not always the highest quality. In order to accommodate the vast numbers and file sizes of these digital delights, websites must compress your high-resolution images into FLASH and other formats. They look fine – mostly – however if your movie depends on lots of action, great sound or other visuals, you’ll need to distribute it on disc or video.

DVD burners are so affordable now, you can usually do it your own, however a more professional approach with animated menus and the like can be obtained through many local photo stores. Also, VHS may be just about obsolete, but it’s still a good idea to transfer anything important to a video format. You never know when it might be required, at least for a few more years to come.

Premiere & Screenings

You won’t need a red carpet or fancy auditorium to hold a premiere, but hey if you can swing it why not! A film premiere of your home brewed blockbuster can be as simple as invited the cast, crew, friends and over for pizza and chicken wings while your epic rolls on. Who knows who could show up as date? Maybe it will be a big film producer looking for the next homespun Peter Jackson or Quentin Tarantino. Additional screenings at more professional locations like auditoriums or even a local movie house, will get your name and your film out there even just locally.

It’s never been easier to make a film, but the legwork getting it seen still exists. The Internet has made it a lot more friendly and accessible, but you must use every available resource around to make your movie stand out from the ever-growing crowd.…

Ethics in Advertising?

American media has long been accused of a bias in heavily representing only certain sides of human nature. In the past few decades they have even become notorious for their skewed portrayals of the human form. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether the American media portrays the human form in an ethical manner through their advertisements.

Throughout this paper I will endeavor to uncover how the capitalistic system of American enterprise has helped to perpetuate the biased body image, how biased body image produces harmful effects in both physical and mental health, and finally, how we as a society can endeavor to change the dangerous trends that the media’s portrayal of biased body images has helped to create.

Bias, in the realm of this paper, will refer to the media’s repeated use of one body type for both men and women in the media. It will also reference themedia’s use of very little diversity regarding gender, race, ethnicity, and age, as well as, the use of “undesirable” body types as negative reinforcement (Ensler, 2004).

One of the most important features of ethicality in any profession is a fair and balanced look at an issue. Dogmatism, the stubborn ascertain of opinion or beliefs, leads to a skewed perspective in any situation (Weston, 2002). This paper asserts that the American media’s portrayal of body image is consistently dogmatic.

This paper will also present the idea that the American media could represent a greater scope of American society by showing a more diverse population of ethnicities, ages, and body sizes. This more rationalistic approach could be a greater boon to the advertising industry than the alienating tactics they are presently using (Edut, 2003).

Advertising is America’s ninth largest industry; every year, its profits soar into the hundreds of millions of dollars (ASA, 2005). It is also, rather surprisingly, one of the most ungoverned.

There are between 30 and 50 different advertising agencies with published codes of ethics in America (ASA, 2005). They include the American Marketing Association (AMA, 2005), American Advertising Federation (AAF, 2005), American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA, 2005), and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI, 2005).

This is quite different from nearly every other highly developed country in the world. Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, etc…all have a unified code of ethics that governs their advertising industry (ASA, 2005). This is due in large part to their governments funding large parts of their countries advertisements. Our own government funds public service announcements, but stays away from the more general melee of commercials.

Advertisements have made their way into almost every facet of our lives. We can go very few places where we are not bombarded with advertisements of every sort. Even our homes are open to them.

The average American watches 3000 advertisements every day. This means, that by the time they are 21 years of age, they will have seen in excess of one million advertisements. American media, our magazines, movies, television programs, etc…are now not only invading nearly every facet of our lives, but they are sweeping into the rest of the world as well (Edut, 2003).

What kind of legacy are they taking with them? What ethical dilemma does this present to our culture? What dilemmas do they take with them into all the other world cultures they are invading? And perhaps, most importantly, who cares?

In truth, there are no simple answers here. However, the ethicality of presenting a dogmatic view of Western-European beauty to the world at large is disturbing at best. This paper contends that the portrayal of a biased body image advocated by the American media is detrimental to the world’s diverse populations, as well as our own, due to the lack of diversity seen in it.

So, in short, if this dogmatism is affecting all of us (and this paper intends to show how the media is affecting our sense of self) then we should all care about this issue. Even if our moral compass does not point toward the good of others, it will certainly direct us to what is good for ourselves. If bias is detrimental to the self, then shouldn’t even the most selfish …

50 Marketing and Advertising Choices

Marketing is expensive, right? Frustrating? Confusing? It doesn’t have to be when you have 50 marketing and advertising choices to pick from. One of these will suit your needs.

1.)Blog tours

2.) Social blasts

3.) Blog posts

4.) Articles and excerpts

5.) Flyers.

6.) Postcards.

This option can be expensive unless you order your supplies in bulk and work from your local phone directory for the addresses.

7.) Special, deals, and freebies.

8.) Contests.

9.) Business cards.

10.) Newspaper ads.

Again, can be costly but think of how many people you are reaching at one time for that money.

11.) Widow writing

12.) Hats and T-shirts.

13.) Bumper stickers.

14.) Booths at the mall or flea market.

15.) Signs and product displays in stores and offices.

This option for advertising is often overlooked by a first time business owner. Public areas you control, like bulletin boards, can also be a great place to market your product.

16.) Email marketing.

17.) Youtube videos.

18.) Press releases.

19.) Radio and TV commercials.

20.) Phone campaigns to stores, libraries, etc…

21.) Postcard followups

22.) Reciprocal linking.

Be careful with this option. We all have heard links matter in search engine rankings but the wrong links can also hurt you in that area. Be sure you only get from and link to, sites with high page rank.


23.) Craig’s list and ebay

24.) Opening and release parties.

25.) Word of mouth-tell people

26.) Links only on your sites to your products.

27.) Internet blog radio.

28.)Adwords and other pay per click campaigns.

29.) An infomercial.

The average order from QVC,(Shopping network) is 1,000 units. Unless you have that many ready, don’t go this way or you’ll have more orders than you can possibly fill in time.

30.) Product dvds and videos.

31.) Buy a complete marketing package from the Cloud 9 Agency.

32.) Get local endorsements.

33.) Joins groups and forums.

34.) Premier listings with distributors. For example, for books, Baker and Taylor has an initial startup fee. For a higher cost, your title can be features in their catalogue’s premier spots(First 20 pages).

35.) Register your stats with agencies who keep track of product sales. It generates links and attention.

36.) Get reviews and use them to your advantage.

37.) Banners and logos.

38.) Email signature advertising.

39.) Email campaign.

40.) Register all art and don’t forget links and keywords, (Called alt tags in photos).

41.) Slideshow created for free on Flicker.

42.) Appearances, preferably with a famous person….

43.) Speaking engagements.

44.) Award ceremonies and dinners.

Even a small gathering of friends and family can be enough. Take photos and include them in your press kits and releases and post them on your sites and blogs. People love to see other ‘real’ folks celebrating.

45.) Local, state, regional, and international fairs, workshops, and festivals.

46.) Live chats.

47.) Public billboards and bus bench ads.
48.) Internet shows, like blog talk radio, which is free on many hosts.
49.) PLace your material samples on scribed and sell the full edition.
50.) Sign up for Yahoo Pulse and blast your information for free.

Marketing and advertising choices can be confusing. Hopefully, this list of 50 helped.…